Santiago de Queretaro is the capital of the Mexican state of Querétaro and head of the municipality of Querétaro. The city was founded on July 25, 1531, in Loma de Sangremal. Its adjective is queretano. The original colonial name was "Santiago de Querétaro" in honor of the patron saint of Spain battling the Apostle James and the name given by the Chichimecas: Querendaro or Cretaro place between clubs from the Aztecs Tlachco land, after the Independence of Mexico was only "Querétaro" or "City of Querétaro. However, after his appointment in 1996 as a World Heritage Site, took up the original name of "Santiago de Queretaro. The original name was Purepecha "K'eretarhu" or instead of a big city, while his name was Otomí "Ndämxei" or "Andamaxei" place where the ballgame is played and its Nahuatl name was Tlachco that mean the same thing.
The city of Querétaro, with 596,450 inhabitants in 2005 (734139 inh. In the town) is the third most populous in the Bajio region, after Morelia, although its metropolitan area (918,100 inhabitants) exceeds the latter city.
The city is located with 10 other metropolitan areas in 3 cities (Querétaro, El Marqués and Corregidora), bringing together 918,100 people in 2005. Maintained the growth rates seen in the last period for the 1st. July 2007 estimated 615,750 inhabitants for the city, 747,930 inhabitants for the urban area, 764,550 inhabitants to 962,240 for the municipality and the metropolitan area.
Sights and Attractions in the city of Querétaro, Mexico
Designation of the city of Querétaro as a World Heritage Site
In October 1995 the relevant file, having been summoned to 22 units, companies, associations and institutions related to the cultural heritage of Querétaro. From here, the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) has developed the definitive record.
Through efforts of the governor and the mayor, Querétaro, Mexico presented a list of candidate sites to be part of world heritage of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). A committee made an assessment visit of the city and took tours of the area of architectural monuments and historical sites.
On December 5, 1995, during the annual meeting of the World Heritage Committee observed in Mérida, it was decided to register in the city of Querétaro on the List of World Cultural Heritage. With this designation, the people and the government are obliged to promote, protect, conserve, revalue and cultural heritage.
- Aqueduct of Querétaro: symbol of the city since it was completed in 1735. The full aqueduct measured 8 932 m length and a monumental archway is 1 280 m. Its exact height is 28.42 m, similar to the Roman constructions of its kind.
- Theater of the Republic: host 3 key events in the history of this country:
- Premiere of the Mexican National Anthem, simultaneously with other cities in 1854.
- The trial of Maximilian of Hapsburg and his generals Tomás Mejía and Miguel Miramón in 1867.
- Discussion and adoption of the Constitution of the United Mexican States, 1917.
- Casa de la Corregidora (erroneously called the Corregidora) headquarters Corregimiento Querétaro where he met with Hidalgo, Allende and others to plan for the independence of Mexico. On September 15, 1810 plans ahead, he left here the message that triggered the Scream and the War of Independence. It is now used as the State Government Palace.
- Academy of Fine Arts: Neoclassical building opened in 1805. In their hall or lounge oval where the president was Don Manuel de la Peña y Peña summoned to Congress to seek the cessation of hostilities between Mexico and United States through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. This was signed at the home of the president who is also in Querétaro.
- Royal College of St. Ignatius and St. Francis Xavier: Jesuits founded schools and did not receive the title of Royal and Pontifical College Seminars until the second half of the eighteenth century. The expulsion of the Order of the Society of Jesus on 25 June 1767 caused its closure. Were reopened in 1771 and between 1863 and 1950 was called the Civil College of Querétaro. It is currently home to some powers of the UAQ.
- Gran Hotel Queretaro: the place where were the ruins of the Convento Grande 4 chapels of San Francisco de Asis, was proposed to build a new palace of government, but was not carried out and the property was sold to Don Well cipriano between 1890-1893 who built this luxurious hotel.
- Casa de la Marquesa: This house was built for Don Francisco Alday, she lived in an indirect descendant of the Marquis II del Villar del Águila, when he had already died, 'therefore it was not built for his wife. Stayed here in 1824 Agustín de Iturbide. Today is one of the most exclusive hotels in Mexico.
- Other mansions Queretanas: examples of beautiful buildings of s. Eighteenth-century splendor of the city are the mansions that are located mainly around the walker May 5 and the Plaza de la Independencia and Calle Hidalgo: Don Bartolo's house, headquarters of one of the most famous legends of the city, the "house of dogs" which is named for the gargoyles that adorn it in the form of dogs, the 5 yards of the mansion that served as temporary residence of Maximilian and Porfirio Díaz, the house of Don Tomas Lopez Ecal, for many the most beautiful city in which was the square of the town square now or Independence.
- Cistern of Querétaro: with the arrival of water through the aqueduct, built beautiful Baroque sources of which are preserved only some and not all correspond to the same period. In the first half of the eighteenth century the city had more than 70 public and others in private residences.
- Temple and former Convent of Saint Augustine: it has a facade with sculptures of the crucified Christ, San Jose, La Virgen de los Dolores, Sta Monica, Sta Rita, San Francisco and San Augustine. Its dome is one of the most beautiful in Mexico by 8 sculptures of angels dressed as Indians in the region and playing instruments at the base. The tower of the temple was never finished, like the cathedral, probably due to lack of budget. The cloister of the former convent is considered the most beautiful baroque courtyard of America and one of the best examples of Baroque around the world. The former convent houses since 1988, the Art Museum of Queretaro.
- Santa Rosa de Viterbo: represents the maximum reaching the baroque splendor in this city, with a unique influence of Mudejar architecture, is the maximum work of Mariano de las Casas who also built the monumental clock (first clock repetition It was built in America) and its beautiful altarpieces. In the sacristy is a portrait of Sister Ana Maria de San Francisco and Neve, one of the best tables designed in the s. XVIII.
- Temple and Convent of Santa Cruz: This temple is dedicated to a cross from the quarry s. XVI Chichimecas carved by hand, which represents which saw the founding of the city in the battle for the hill Sangremal after 8 hours of fighting on July 25, 1531. The convent was the first ecclesiastical college of Propaganda Fide in America. Hence, many missionaries came as Fray Junipero Serra, the builder of the Franciscan missions of Sierra Gorda and the Alta California. It has also been of great importance for the history of the country served as a prison for Don Miguel Dominguez, Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez and Epigmenio Gonzales during the conspiracy; Iturbide was taken to end the colonial regime in Queretaro, Maximilian was barracks and afternoon during his first imprisonment in Queretaro site. Still serving the church, but guided tours.
- Temple and former Convent of St. Francis of Assisi: It is the largest temple in the city cathedral and was for a long period. The convent was the first of the city and is currently occupied by the Regional Museum.
- Old San Felipe Neri Oratory, Cathedral of Queretaro: Unlike nearly all the cathedrals of the world, of Querétaro is not facing the main square, and neither is near the government palace, is simply a cross between street : Madero and Ocampo. One of the largest temples of Queretaro, the facade has finished most of the city with a mixture of several styles. It is the Cathedral of Queretaro since 1920, although the chapel dates from 1786. He was blessed by Don Miguel Hidalgo, who conducted the first Mass in 1805.
- Templo de Santa Clara de Asis: what remains of the Royal Convent of Santa Clara of Assisi, one of the largest and most important of the colonial era (4 blocks occupied, and came to live with over 500 women), was destroyed during the Guerra de Reforma. The temple is the most ornate of the city, highlighting its altarpieces, bars and choruses.
- Sanctuary of the Congregation: The only ancient temple with 2 twin towers in Queretaro. Carlos de Sigüenza Góngora and a book devoted to the holidays that were celebrated in honor of the Virgin of Guadalupe in this temple. On the inside there is a tubular organ majestic and beautiful painting of the Virgin, by Miguel Cabrera.
- Former convent of the Capuchin Poor: 2 host museums, art served prison Maximiliano. Notably, the Capuchin nuns were asked to the Marquis that the construction of the aqueduct.
- Temple and former Convent Teresitas: neoclassicist of maximum expression in Queretaro. Functioned as the ex-barracks and prison 3era Maximiliano, among other uses, and is currently a music conservatory.
- Temple and former Convent of El Carmen: one of the largest temples in the city, famous for the fair amount of pigeons that flock to its adjacent square.
- Parish main Santiago de Queretaro: this first sang patriotic hymn to the Virgin of Guadeloupe, in the era that served as Cathedral (1887).
In the city you can visit the following museums:
- Regional Museum: here are some of the most beautiful objects in the history of the state and Mexico.
- Art Museum: located in the ex-convent of San Agustín has a permanent collection of Mexican painting and sculpture in Europe and mainly from the eighteenth century.
- City Museum: Located in the ex-Capuchin shows temporary exhibitions of art (painting, sculpture, film, theater, etc.)..
- Museum of the Restoration of the Republic: shows weapons, uniforms and other objects from the era of the Second Empire and the Mexican site of Queretaro, where the final battle Republican Army defeated the aliens in 1867. Furthermore it shows how life was hooded nuns (to locate in the convent, but in an entirely separate part of the city museum).
- Museum of the History of Magic: is an interactive museum that shows Querétaro throughout its history until the twentieth century.
- Museum of Zacatecas: located at the House of Zacatecas (site of another legend of Queretaro). The museum has 12 rooms with antiques from the nineteenth century, a room decorated with the Louis XVI style salon and watches, watches with 39 British, American, French and German from the XVII, XVIII and XIX.
- Museum of Mathematics: This interactive museum help to better understand the science, models, exercises, etc..
Within the Zone of Querétaro Historic Monuments of these beautiful areas are open:
- Garden Zenea: the most representative of the city bears the name of a governor queretano of the 1870s. Shown in a beautiful source of the Greek goddess Hebe and a kiosk, both s. XIX. Dates decembrinas is installed in your garden with a monumental sculpture of birth size.
- Independence Square or Plaza de Armas: is the main square. At its north side is the Government Palace in the state. In the other, is surrounded by famous restaurants and mansions of the s. XVIII.
- Constitution Square: will be located between the Grand Hotel and the Academy of Fine Arts. Below is an underground car park with capacity for 300 vehicles. Originally a market in 1963 was the square with a column for each state of the country, each enrolled the names of its members signed the Constitution of 1917. Around 2000 everything was removed, and was a circular fountain in a controversial redevelopment.
- Founders Plaza: is the birthplace of the city. You can visit where to buy small crafts.
- Jardín Guerrero: along with the delegation from the Center (formerly City Hall). This site was thought to use to build a new cathedral (shortly after the War of Reform), but the ground was unstable, so it was left as a garden.
- Garden of Corregidora: surrounded by shops, looks at its center, the Monument to the Corregidora.
- Plaza Ignacio Mariano de las Casas: it was built to provide a better view of the temple of Santa Rosa de Viterbo.
- Francisco I Madero Garden: is located at one side of Santa Clara and sports the famous Neptune Fountain.
In Querétaro, there are 2 national parks:
- The Cerro de las Campanas, within the World Heritage.
- Cimatario the National Park, south of the city.
- La Joya Barreta Park is located north of town, past the community of Santa Rosa Jáuregui and going to San Miguel de Allende. With an area of 2450000 m2, is the largest park of the municipality and is distinguished by the presence of oak wood, and other vegetation types. It is dedicated to the conservation of mountain ecosystem that offers alternative activities for recreation, leisure and education for all audiences. It can be done hiking, camping, mountain biking, hiking, summer camps or workshops and is in charge of the Department of Ecology of the Municipality of Querétaro.
- Queretaro 2000 has an Olympic swimming pool, an auditorium, theater (sound shell) and soccer fields and baseball, and other services.
- Alfalfa: with over 240 thousand square meters is the largest park in the city of modern style with a small artificial lake.
- Road Park: A park located on the outskirts of the city center. Regularly is a meeting of Boy Scouts and the MJC.
- Park Hacienda Gardens Park located in the area of the city surponiente.
- Michigan Holland Park is a park located between the Delegation Epigmenio González and the Centro Comercial Pie de la Cuesta, behind it lies the National Pedagogical University unit Querétaro. How has that special gift was in the company of Holland, Michigan, United States to enhance cooperation between the two cities.
- Alameda Miguel Hidalgo, one of the largest malls in the country, is part of World Heritage. In the center there is a bronze statue covered with gold don Miguel Hidalgo.
- Alcanfores: in fact two parks (north and south) divided by a railway. Both parks have several of the oldest trees in the city.